My research interests lie mainly in the fields of energy economics and the spatial structure of economic development. I am especially interested in the relationship between energy use and urbanization in developing countries. Other areas of research include the link between economic development and quality of governance (institutions), inequality and the energy sector in Mozambique.

Working papers:

Berenschot, W. and P. Mulder (2018). Explaining regional variation in local governance: clientelism and state-dependency in Indonesia. Under submission.

Bakens, J., H.L.F. de Groot, R.J.G.M. Florax and P. Mulder (2018). Living Apart Together. The Economic Value of Ethnic Diversity in Cities. Under submission.

Dobis, E.A., M.S. Delgado, R.J.G.M. Florax and P. Mulder (2018). Hierarchy and Spatial Contagion: Population in American Cities between 1990 and 2010. Under submission.


Work in progress:

Income inequality dynamics in decentralizing Indonesia (with I.S. Rosidin. I.S and H.L.F. de Groot) 

Urbanization versus Renewable Energy Transition in Developing Countries. A Spatial Energy Model and Evidence for Indonesia (with S. Fevreira and C. Bogmans) 

The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Consumption in the Global South. Evidence across Countries, Cities and Neighborhoods (with S. Fevreira, G.M. Mahumane and J. Tijm)

Urban form and Motorcylce Choice in Asia. Evidence from the City of Yogyakarta (with S. Fevreira)

On the Urbanization of Energy Poverty. Evidence from Mozambique  (with G.M. Mahumane)

What determines diversity and specialization patterns across cities? Evidence from Spain (with J. Díaz Lanchas and R.J.G.M. Florax)

Urban Settlement in the United States: Birth, Location and Growth of Incorported Places (with E. Dobis, M. Delgado and R.J.G.M. Florax)